The Academy of Medical Sciences of the Serbian Medical Society (Academy) was founded in 1976 with the aim of monitoring and promoting scientific research in all areas of medical science, striving to apply the latest scientific achievements in practice and providing continuous medical education.

Since its founding in 1872, the Serbian Medical Society has been "the hearth of Serbian medical science," and over more than a decade the idea grew that it was necessary to establish a scientific organization under its auspices to encourage and promote scientific research in all fields of medicine. At the 90th regular Assembly of the Serbian Medical Society held on December 15, 1976, the decision was made to establish the Medical Academy of the Serbian Medical Society.

Over time, the organizational structure of the Medical Academy was improved and its activities enriched without jeopardizing the basic goals set by its founders. Thus, at the Assembly of the Medical Academy in 1994, a decision was made to form two branches with the aim of expanding activities more efficiently: the Vojvodina branch in Novi Sad and a branch in Niš.

In 2000 the name of the Medical Academy was changed to the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Serbian Medical Society to reflect better the program of work of the Academy, participation of its members in scientific research projects and development perspectives.