The most important tasks of the Academy are as follows:

- to monitor and encourage expansion of basic, developmental and applied research in all areas of medical science;

- to determine doctrinal attitudes and propose standards for the realization of the latest achievements in the fields of medicine, dentistry and other related sciences necessary for the development of scientific and professional work in these fields;

- to organize and manage the creation of guidelines for good clinical practice in cooperation with the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia;

- to cooperate with other relevant institutions and authorities;

- to perform continuous medical education;

- to make proposals for harmonization of plans and programs of education, scientific and professional training in the fields of medicine and dentistry;

- to establish connections with related academies in this country, the region and the world 

The most important activities of the Academy are thematic scientific meetings and lectures, inauguration addresses by newly elected members, programs of continuous medical education and lectures for the popularization of science.

The Academy also engages in publishing activities. It publishes the periodical "Monographs of Scientific Meetings AMS SMS", monographs whose authors and/or editors are AMS members, biographies of members, as well as the annual informer.